May 18, 2022 admin
Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces:
Cleaning and disinfecting the environment help to avoid the spread of hazardous bacteria. The nature of the object, the type, number, and location of microorganisms, how well the microbes resist physical processes or disinfectants, the presence of organic and inorganic matter, the concentration and effectiveness of a disinfectant, and other physical and chemical properties (i.e., temperature, pH), and the time of exposure and contact time are all factors that influence how well it works. Remember that cleaning and disinfecting the environment is only one of the numerous actions that must be taken to avoid the spread of germs. Except for bacterial spores, disinfection is the process of eradicating many or all germs that can cause disease. High, midrange, and low disinfection levels are used depending on how many microorganisms are eradicated.
A disinfectant is a chemical or physical agent that kills germs but not bacterial spores (e.g. ultraviolet light). High-level, intermediate-level, and low-level disinfectants are all types of disinfectants. Antimicrobial pesticides are compounds used to control, prevent, or eradicate dangerous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, or fungi) on inanimate objects and surfaces, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sanitisers, disinfectants, and sterilants have long been used as antimicrobial products. Prior to a chemical’s sale, data on its chemistry, efficacy, toxicity to humans, animals, and plants, and other characteristics must be examined and provided to the EPA. Chemical disinfectants have a variety of antimicrobial properties. As a result, it’s critical to have a fundamental awareness of the various chemical agents.
Factors that affect the action of disinfection and sterilization:
Germicide activity against microorganisms is influenced by a variety of elements, some of which are inherent to the organism, while others are influenced by the chemical and physical environment.
If all other factors remain constant, the higher the number of germs, the longer it takes a germicide to kill them completely. When the germicide is used according to the labelling, reducing the number of germs that must be inactivated through diligent cleaning increases the margin of safety and shortens the exposure time needed to kill the complete microbial contamination. Researchers have also shown that monodispersed cells are more difficult to inactivate than aggregated or clumped ones.
Microorganisms’ Innate Resistance-
The resistance of microorganisms to chemical germicides and sterilising methods varies substantially. Microorganisms’ intrinsic resistance mechanisms to disinfectants differ. Disinfectants are resistant to spores because the spore coat and cortex operate as a barrier, mycobacteria have a waxy cell wall that prevents disinfectant entrance, and gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane that hinders disinfectant uptake. The idea that the more resistant microbial subpopulation regulates the sterilisation or disinfection time is implicit in all disinfection techniques. To eradicate the most resistant forms of microorganisms (i.e., bacterial spores), the user must use exposure times and a germicide concentration sufficient to completely destroy them.
Disinfectant Concentration and Potency-
With the exception of iodophors, the higher the disinfectant’s concentration, the greater its efficiency and the shorter the time required to accomplish microbiological death. The fact that not all disinfectants are affected in the same way by concentration changes is widely overlooked. For example, the concentration exponents of quaternary ammonium compounds and phenol are 1 and 6, respectively; consequently, halving the concentration of a quaternary ammonium compound requires doubling the disinfection time, whereas halving the concentration of a phenol solution requires a 64-fold (i.e., 26) increase in disinfecting time.
Physical and Chemical Factors-
Temperature, pH, relative humidity, and water hardness are among the physical and chemical parameters that influence disinfection operations. Most disinfectants, for example, increase their activity as the temperature rises, although there are notable exceptions. Furthermore, a significant temperature increase causes the disinfectant to deteriorate and impair its germicidal effectiveness, thus posing a health risk. Some disinfectants (e.g., glutaraldehyde, quaternary ammonium compounds) have improved antibacterial activity when pH rises, while others have decreased antimicrobial activity (e.g., phenols, hypochlorites, and iodine). The disinfectant molecule and the cell surface are both affected by pH. The single most critical element determining the effectiveness of gaseous disinfectants/sterilants like EtO, chlorine dioxide, and formaldehyde is relative humidity. As the divalent cations (e.g., magnesium, calcium) in hard water interact with disinfectants to create insoluble precipitate, water hardness (i.e., high concentration of divalent cations) lowers the rate of killing of certain disinfectants.
Microorganisms can protect themselves against disinfectants by forming biofilms, which are dense masses of cells and extracellular components. Biofilms are microbial populations that adhere to surfaces and are difficult to remove. Multiple processes, including physical properties of older biofilms, genotypic polymorphism of bacteria, microbial synthesis of neutralising enzymes, and physiologic gradients within the biofilm, might make microbes within them resistant to disinfectants once they form (e.g., pH). Biofilm-forming bacteria are up to 1,000 times more resistant to antimicrobials than bacteria in suspension. Despite the fact that new decontamination methods for eliminating biofilms are being developed, chlorine and monochloramines can efficiently inactivate biofilm microorganisms.
IMAEC MEDNTEK’s effective range of disinfectants:
We provide a wide range of disinfectants starting from general-purpose disinfectants to instrumental or high-level surface disinfectants. Along with surface disinfectants, we also offer some multipurpose disinfectant products that can be used for environmental disinfection. For general areas, we provide Cidaltek DR LS 13N, a triamine based disinfectant. For high-level disinfection in OTs, hospitals, and other critical areas we have Cidaltek R82 and Cidaltek W10 which can be used for surface as well as environmental disinfection. The Cidaltek R82 is a fifth-generation QAC that is effective against a broad range of microorganisms. It is also approved by EPA and CDSCO for its safe use. The Cidaltek W10 is food grade disinfectant composed of hydrogen peroxide and silver ions. All these products are highly effective against a broad range of microorganisms.
- Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the context of COVID-19. (n.d.). Retrieved May 16, 2022, from https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/cleaning-and-disinfection-of-environmental-surfaces-inthe-context-of-covid-19
2. Efficacy | Disinfection & Sterilization Guidelines | Guidelines Library | Infection Control | CDC. (2019, April 4). https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/efficacy.html
3. Table 10 | Disinfection & Sterilization Guidelines | Guidelines Library | Infection Control | CDC. (2019, April 3). https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/disinfection/tables/table10.html